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Following some articles related to HDI PCBs we would like to describe the three related more common build-up structures.
HDI PCB types
The design designation system of this standard recognizes industry approved design types used in the manufacture of HDI printed boards. The designations determine the HDI design type by defining the number and location of HDI layers that may or may not be combined with a substrate.
Type I, Standard build-up for HDI
This construction describes an HDI in which there are both blind vias and through vias used for interconnection. Type I constructions describe the fabrication of a single blind via layer on either one or both sides of an PCB substrate core.
The PCB substrate is typically manufactured using conventional PCB techniques and laser via hole technology. The substrate can have as few as one circuit layer or may be as complex as any number of inner layers.
Type II, Sequential build-up 1+N+1
Tipe II is characterized by buried vias in the core and may have through vias through the outer layers. Type II constructions describe an HDI board in which there are plated microvias, plated buried vias and may have PTHs used for surface-to-surface interconnection.
Microvias on layer 1 and layer n grant the connection to conductors on layer 2 and layer n-1, making the connection with the core. Type II constructions can also have PTH to connect layer 1 directly to layer n.
Struttura Tipo III, build-up sequenziale X+N+X
Type III constructions describe an HDI in which there are plated microvias, paste/resin filled holes and through vias used for interconnection. Type III constructions are distinguished by having at least two microvia layers on at least one side of a substrate core. The substrate core is usually manufactured using conventional PCB techniques, may be rigid or flexible, and have as few as one or as many as any number of layers with buried vias.
Where space is minimal and if expressly requested, stacked vias - stacked blind holes - must be used - while where conditions allow it, staggered vias - non-overlapping blind holes on several levels - can be used. Staggered vias are less critical, so preferable, for manufacturing than stacked vias.
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Mar 31 2021
Date: March 31, 2021 11:51 AM
The capped vias technology with hole filling with resin aims to increase the density of the interconnections in printed circuit boards by using the space occupied by through holes as SMD assembly points. This technique consists in filling the holes after plating them, with copper thicknesses on the walls, normally >25µm, and, in any case, defined with the customer.
The resins adopted for "filled and capped vias” have specific insulation properties and dimensional variation with temperatures, they are treated with heat for the relative polymerization and consequent hardening, and, subsequently, are first planarized and then covered with a layer of copper with a thickness of at least 15µm.
This technique can be applied for the realization of different types of printed circuits and with multiple application variants which for this reason are in strong expansion:
- pads used for µBGA, "ball on via technology" and SMD assembly: "Via in Pad Assembly Technology"
- pads used as test points, "Via in Pad Test Technology”
- heat dissipation pads under the cases of the components for "heat management”
- SBU - sequential build up" construction with laser stacked holes on buried holes treated as capped vias
The fundamental operations for filling the holes with resin are carried out in two distinct phases: in the first, the holes are filled with variable pressure and vacuum to allow perfect filling of the holes without the risk of gaps in the resin, while, in the second phase, a surface cleaning of the panel is performed to eliminate the excess resin, facilitating its subsequent planarization.
Whatever the final technology chosen, after complete polymerization, the resin is removed by a mechanical brushing action, called planarization, which can be performed with specific machines that work with cup brushes or with horizontal brushing machines.
The target is to remove the excess resin and create a uniform surface: this operation is a prerequisite for the subsequent over-plating of the filled vias with copper to allow ideal soldering of electronic components. (inserisci disegno).
The knowledge of "capped vias" technology is fundamental today to create compliant pcbs to market and regulations standards required, especially relating to the growing HDI technology demand.
Feb 25 2021
Date: February 25, 2021 4:08 PM
This trend is imposed by the market demand for increasingly portable devices, therefore of low weight, and capable of integrating many functions: the real challenge is to reduce the size of the devices, miniaturizing them, and, at the same time, to increase their performance.
The target can be reached basically by working on the structure of the printed circuit board by increasing the density of the components on the surface and the number of connections between the layers that make it up: this need has therefore led to the birth and diffusion of " HDI - High Density Interconnection" structures.
All circuits with pitches’ density per surface with values greater than 20 pitches/cm² greater than traditional printed circuit boards (PCBs) are defined as high interconnection density PCBs (HDI). This therefore results in smaller size for design parameters such as tracks less than 100 ?m/4mils wide, laser holes with a diameter less than 150 ?m/6mils and pitches with a diameter less than 400 ?m/16mils.
Feb 9 2021
Date: February 9, 2021 7:52 AM
In particular, we have highlighted that the moisture absorbed by the base material can generate delamination during the assembly of PCBs.
With this second article, relating to the risks generated on PCBs by the presence of humidity, we deepen the subject and deal, in particular, with the impact of humidity on the Tg of the base materials and the consequences on the quality of PCBs and PCBAs.
The Tg of a polymeric material (laminates and pre-impregnates are partially made of resin) represents the temperature value at which the glass transition begins which we could define as the temperature at which the resin changes its mechanical characteristics starting to soften: for this reason it is important to choose the base material in relation to the expected conditions of use of each PCB.
To read all the article, click here
Nov 28 2020
Date: November 28, 2020 11:00 PM
Each sector has specific regulation requirements and each application field presents different technical necessities.
For this reason it is crucial to know not only regulations and be qualified in each industrial sector, but also to be able to answer practically to technical requirements, typical of each different application.
What makes Cistelaier a “unique” PCBs manufacturer, is to be accredited for the following sectors:
- Industrial: ISO 9001:2015
- Aerospace & Defence: UNI EN 9100:2016
- Automotive: IATF:2016
- Medical: ISO 13485
- Railway: ISO/TS 22163
and to handle the following standards
- IPC-A-600, class 2, 3 or class 3DS(A)
- IPC 6012 (Rigid), IPC 6013 (Rigid-Flex), IPC 6016 (HDI) and IPC 6018 (Microwave)
- MIL-P-55110 (Rigid) and MIL-P-50884 (Rigid-Flex)
- ESA-ECSS - Q – ST – 70 – 10C / 11C / 12C
- ESA-ECSS - Q – ST – 70 – 60C
that are are the basis of design and manufacturing of each electronic device.
This is the necessary premise to be able to realize PCBs in each sector.
Then, practically, electronic devices performances could be improved starting from the base materials choice.
The more-than-40-years know-how of production, together with its capability to use different materials to satisfy the more different requirements, allows Cistelaier to supply optimized PCBs for each possible application.
We can support our partners to reach the best performances from their electronic devices in each sector, for each application.
Do not hesitate to contact us, our technicians are at your disposal!
Make a call to +39 059 269711 or send and e-mail to email@example.com.
Oct 11 2020
Date: October 11, 2020 10:00 AM
One of the main reasons for that is to have developed integrated production systems for the three companies of the PCB Division: Cistelaier in Italy, Techci-Rhône-Alpes in France and EPN Electroprint in Germany.
The aim of this integration process is to make the production systems of the three companies of the PCB Division more and more capable to interact and to replace each other, so that each one of them could offer its own production capacity completing and integrating the one of the others.
In Techci, this integration process has started in 2011 when Finmasi Group acquired it.
Since then, between the Italian plants of Cistelaier and the French plant of Techci has started an accurate technical evaluation and a deep exchange of experiences and technology knowledge.
Harmonic development logics has been carried out, such as base material’s standardization – the chemistry for production included, which is really important in PCBs manufacturing – and technologies's and machinery’s standardization.
The aim was, and still is, to get the best of each company of the PCB Division and to implement it at the PCB Division level so to make it a standard for the PCB Division itself.
This process has allowed enhancing Cistelaier’s and Techci’s best practices maximising the overall results of the PCB Division.
Today the development of the PCB Division is continuing also with EPN Electroprint, a German PCB manufacturer based in Neustadt (Thuringia region) acquired by Finmasi Group in January 2019.
Only after a few months from the acquisition, EPN already qualified and adopted the same preferential materials of the PCB Division, the same chemistry for production and often also the same machineries.
Finmasi Group’s PCB Division integration continues, sure that this logic represents a concrete asset.
Integration activities very similar to those implemented throughout the companies of the PCB Division, have been developed and continue to be subject to improvement also with our Chinese partners for PCB manufacturing.
Indeed, the PCB Division takes advantage of the cooperation of the best Chinese manufacturers to complete its offer, especially for high volumes batches.
This integration allows to offer to our Customers a support wider than that which each one of the companies of the PCB Division could deliver by its own.
This is important, for example, when a higher production capacity is needed, as a result of an order income higher than the forecasted one or when a production breakdown occurs in one of the plants of the PCB Division.
Risk analysis and management are fundamental activities for leading companies in their own market sector such as those of the Finmasi Group’s PCB Division.
www.cistelaier.com - www.techci.fr - www.epn.de
Sep 29 2020
Date: September 29, 2020 10:00 PM
To grant the quality of PCBs of increasing complexity and technological content all along their life cycle became a “must” for OEM active in all marketing sectors from Aerospace & Defence to Automotive and nevertheless in Rail, Medical and Industrial Automation sectors.
The process of miniaturization together with the new coming needs of PCB consumers in terms of performances of the finished electronic equipment had the cumulated effect to increase the complexity of PCBs and, as a consequence, forced to adopt the most advanced technologies to ascertain PCB conformity both, according to the international standards and according to specific requirements coming from the final customer.
The international standards, the IPC norms before all, suggest, in particular, to improve the interaction among the PCB designers – represented by the final customer in the most of the cases -, the PCB manufacturers and the PCB assembly service companies in order to reduce the criticalities of the PCBA (Assembled PCB) and, more in general, of the finished product.
The test methods to validate the conformity of PCBs are described by the IPC TM650 and by different and additional norms related to specific sectors like the MIL for the Military sector and the ESA ECSS for applications in the Space sector.
The way to prepare and to “read” cross sections are also described by the IPC.
Microsections are adopted to check the internal characteristics of PCBs (i.e copper plating thickness, quality of copper filling for blind vias, quality of resin filled vias in case of via in pad solutions in particular) and for the evaluation of the most critical points like the corners of PTH holes and vias or of the annular ring in where inner layers are drilled so to be connected to each other.
Another important aspect is the verification of correctness of the stack up, mainly, but not only, for PCBs with nets with controlled impedance. With microsections is possible to evaluate the presence and the thickness of each and every layer, and, even more, to evaluate thickness of base copper of the inner layers and of the successive platings with chemical copper and electrolytic copper.
The controlled impedance are calculated in the PCB design phase on the basis of the selected base material to produce it, and then will be rechecked and simulated in feasibility analysis and engineering phase by the PCB manufacturer on the basis of the definitive material agreed by the designer and the PCB manufacturer. The dielectric constant of the insulating material – pre-preg and core of inner layers - together with the section size of the nets determine the value of controlled impedance of nets.
Is possible to check the value of controlled impedance trough specific test coupons designed on the PCB production panel and therefore manufactured together with the PCB.
The necessity to reduce the PCB size forced the PCB designers to increase the number of internal interconnections between layers and to adopt more complex technological solutions like blind vias, single and sequential, stacked or staggered, blind vias and buried vias.
More complex structures with increased drill’s density make the internal structure of PCBs more sensible to thermal stresses related to the soldering process where two options, or a combination of them, are possible: wave soldering process for TH components or SMD soldering process for SMD components.
For this reason, the thermal stress tests are important to simulate the behaviours of PCBs and their robustness during the soldering process of the electronic components on them.
Thermal stresses are executed in order to check and validate the quality of copper plating of PTH holes according to two possible options: 3 thermal stresses at a 288°C (IPC TM 650 2.6) or 6 stress a 260°C (IPC TM650 2.6.27).
In addition to the destructive analysis, so those that force to destroy and waste the PCBs, that are often necessary to investigate the internal characteristics of the PCBs coming from the special processes involved in the PCB manufacturing process, not destructive analysis are performed like the X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (XRF) to determine the thickness of the PCB finishes (HASL, ENIG, ENEPIG, tin-lead Hot Oil reflow, Immersion Silver, Immersion Tin, iSiG,- Hard Gold).
The analysis of the thickness of the finishes, are not only important to control the process, but they are necessary to prove the conformity of the boards. Not conformity of the thickness of the finishes could, in fact, generate quality problems of electronic components soldering.
Through the contaminometer is also possible to determine the ionic contamination on the PCB surface, on the finishes and on soldermask. This method is known as Resistivity of Solvent Extract ( ROSE) and is performed with the aim to detect excess of halides on PCB surface that could generate soldering defects and weak adhesion of conformal coating.
Moreover, the most recent 3D microscope technologies for inspection allowed to substitute not destructive analysis to destructive ones i.e. to check surface roughness, dimple of filled holes, cavity depth, etching value for RF nets, and for quality verification of laser and mechanical drilled blind vias, back drilled vias included.
This technology allows to significantly reduce the time needed to test and validate the quality of PCBs.
The whole of the aforementioned analysis, together with some additional ones that will be the subject of another short tutorial, grant the conformity of the PCB and its stability during the time.
The results of these analysis are collected in the most common reports adopted to certificate the conformity of products like the FAI Report, the PPAP and the Test Report prepared and filled according to the EN9100, IATF, ISO13485, ISO TS 22163 and ESA ECSS standards and to different/additional requirements coming from customers.
Cistelaier, TECHCI and EPN Electroprint – the three companies of the PCB Division of the Finmasi Group – grant the quality of PCBs through the best available inspection and test technologies.
Higher heat resistance is needed for lead-free assembly processes: laminates that need to resist to high temperature must have a higher Decomposition Temperature (called Td).
Additional features important for the new laminates are:
- uniform glass distribution to get a better quality in laser drilling
- thinner glass fabrics to get better electrical properties
- thin dielectrics for distributed capacitance between power and ground
New laminates “designed” for high-performance PCBs have to be reviewed under thermal-mechanical and electrical aspects.
Here following a list of the typical characteristics to take under consideration during the base material choice.
- Thermal expansion in x, y and z-axis with special impact on the z-axis for the reliability of the vias (e.g. barrel cracking) and withstand multiple pressing processes.
- Parameters for signal integrity and impedance requirements.
- Uniform glass distribution helps to get a better quality in laser drilling.
- Thinner glass fabrics help to get better electrical properties.
- Thin dielectrics make it possible to get a better distribution of capacitance between power and ground.
Glass transition temperature Tg
- The temperature at which the material stops acting as a rigid material.
- Higher heat resistance is needed for lead-free assembly processes: laminates that need to resist to high temperature must have a higher Decomposition Temperature (called Td). This is the temperature that a laminate can withstand when it has lost 5% of its weight by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA).
- mportant aspects may be the CAF Resistance and moisture absorption.
- Need of “Low Halogen” laminates for the green electronic.
Standard FR4, high Tg Laminates also Halogen Free and specific for High Speed Digital:
- FR4 standard & Leadfree: Iteq IT140 & IT588; Isola Duraver ML104i - Tg 140 °C; Black FR4
- Mid Tg epoxy for Lead-free process: Iteq IT158 -Tg 160 °C; Isola IS400 -Tg 150 °C
- Mid Tg– Halogen Free: Iteq IT40G -Tg 140 °C, IT150G
- High Tg 180°C epoxy (without filler): Iteq IT180 (also No/Low flow Prepreg); Isola IS420& IS410; ARLON 45N
- High Tg 180°C epoxy (with filler): Iteq IT180A & IT180i; Isola PCL370HR; Nelco N4000-29; Hitachi 700GR; EMC 827 i
- High Tg 170°C epoxy – Halogen Free: Iteq IT170GRA1 & IT170G & IT180GN
- High speed application: Nelco N4000-13(Si) & N4800-20(Si); Isola Fr408HR, IS600(series), Astra and I-Tera; Iteq IT200DK and IT150DA(SE), IT-968 (SE), IT-988G, IT-988G SE; Panasonic Megtron6 and Megtron7
- Capacitance layer: OAK-Mitsui Faradflex
High-performances materials for avionic/military application:
- Polyimide Resin System: Arlon 33N, 35N, 84N, 85N, 85HP; Ventec VT901(also No/Low flow); Hitachi MCL-I-671; Isola 95P/96P; NELTEC N 7000VO
- Epoxy Resin System: Arlon® Kevlar 4NK (Tg 170 °C and 4.7 ppm/°C)
- Epoxy and Polyimide Thermount® & Para Aramid fiber: ARLON 55NT/85NT
- Copper/Invar/Copper: tipically 150 μm thick - 17/120/17 μm)
- Thick copper: up to 500 microns and over, for BusBar application and copper inlay&coin technology
- Flexible Laminates-Polyimide film based: DuPont PYRALUX LF; PYRALUX FR
- Flexible Laminates- Polyimide film based Adhesiveless: PYRALUX AP, PYRALUX AP-Plus & PYRALUX TK
- Flexible Laminates-Polyimide based Adhesiveless: UBE Upilex; Iteq IF-2LD; Panasonic Felios
- Emi shielding layer: Tatsuta SF-PC6000 and TATSUTA SF-PC 3300
- Rogers® / Arlon (also Copper/Brass supported): RT/Duroid Family; RO3000 Family; TMM Family; DiClad Family; Isoclad Family; Cuclad Family; AD Family; AR Family; TC Family
- Rogers® / Arlon®: RO4350 & RO4003 (Back up material for discontinued 25N & 25FR but partially applicable)
- Rogers®: ULTRALAM® 3850HT - Liquid Crystalline Polymer (LCP)
- Iteq “new generation” material for RF and Microvawe applications IT-88GMW, IT-8300GA, IT-8338G, IT-8338A, IT-8350G, IT-8350A, IT-8615G with Dk from 3,00 up to 6,15(,05)
- Taconic®: RF25A2, RF35, RF35A2, RF45, RF60, TSM-DS3, Cer10, FastRise, TACLAM Plus and all teflon family (TLX, TLY, TLE)
- Nelco: Mercurywave series, Meteorwave (1000 & 4000 Series) and all teflon family
- Foam: Rohacel HF51.
Jul 25 2020
Date: July 25, 2020 10:00 AM
Cistelaier, established in 1998 merging the two industrial entities, Cistel S.r.l., established in Genoa in 1976 and Laier S.r.l., established in Modena in 1986, manufactures prototypes, small, medium and large series of a very wide range of printed circuit boards: double-sided, multilayer, rigid-flex, rigid and rigid-flex multilayer HDI PCBs and PCBs manufactured with special materials.
Given all its accreditations, produces all kind of PCBs for all market sectors with a very wide range of materials and almost all finishes.
Techci has been established in 1983 in Saint Genix Sur Guiers, France, their capabilities in PCB manufacturing in terms of technology and services are very similar to Cistelaier’ capabilities.
It is mostly focused in Aerospace, Defense and Civil avionic fields.
EPN has been established in 1988 in Neustadt, in Turingia Region in Germany and mainly devoted to production of PCBs for the industrial field.
VISION, MISSION AND BUSINESS MODEL
Our vision is to be leading manufacturer offering Global Services and Local Support to consumers mainly, but not only, on the European market.
Our mission is to continue developing capabilities, services and know-how to offer our customers the widest range of PCBs in terms of technologies and services, from double-sided PCBs to HDI rigid and HDI rigid-flex PCBs of high and very-high technology level, in small, mid and high volumes, even with quick turnaround delivery, manufactured in our own plants in Europe. We complete our offer for high quantities through our fully controlled long standing sourcing-partnerships with highly qualified Asian manufacturers.
Our business model is to supply PCBs to our customers from the first prototype batch, with quick turn around service upon request, to the serial production. W e reserve our capacity and capability to manage QTA service only for our real partners who can share our business model thus contributing to build long-term partnerships that represent the basis to grant our continuity and growth.
ACCREDITATION AND STANDARDS
What makes the PCB Division unique, is to be certified to produce, not only for the industrial sector through ISO9001:2015 but also for critical sectors such as:
§ Aerospace & Defence: UNI EN 9100:2016 (Cistelaier & Techci)
§ Avionic : NADCAP (Techci)
§ Automotive: IATF:2016 (Cistelaier)
§ Medical: ISO 13485 (Cistelaier)
§ Railway: ISO/TS 22163 (Cistelaier & Techci)
Products are manufactured according to the following standards and specific control plans are agreed with customers if needed:
§ IPC-A-600, class 2, 3 or class 3DS(A)
§ IPC 6012 (Rigid), IPC 6013 (Rigid-Flex), IPC 6016 (HDI) and IPC 6018 (Microwave)
§ MIL-P-55110 (Rigid) and MIL-P-50884 (Rigid-Flex)
§ ESA-ECSS - Q – ST – 70 – 10C / 11C / 12C
§ ESA-ECSS - Q – ST – 70 – 60C
Cistelaier, Techci and EPN are also IPC Members and several employees are Qualified IPC Trainers and IPC Specialists. Thanks to their know-how and accreditations and to their flexible service they have been able to become technological partners of customers performing in almost all market sectors.
Cistelaier and Techci produce and sell all kinds of PCBs: double-sided PCBs, rigid multilayer boards up to 40 layers, rigid-flex boards up to 12 flex layers and HDI multilayer rigid and rigid-flex boards.
Cistelaier and Techci validated their processes to produce with more than 100 different base materials so as to deliver PCBs for all possible applications.
They produce with standard-performance materials and with high-performance materials (i.e. Hi Tg, Alogen Free, Hi-speed, epoxy and polyimidic resin materials, copper/invar/copper, HI frequency materials Teflon and not Teflon based, thick copper materials).
EPN produces PCBs of what we call standard technology from single-sided PCBs to 10 layers PCBs even with quick-turn delivery service.
The PCB Division could deliver PCBs with
- lines and spaces down to 75 microns width
- length / width combinations of the panel up to 860 mm x 470 mm
- thickness of the panel up to 5.5 mm
- copper thickness up to 500 microns
- copper coins and bas bars insertion
- mixed materials build up
- all finishes: ENIG, ENEPIG, chemical Tin, HAL Lead and Lead free, chemical Silver, OSP, electrolytic Nichel – Gold (Hard & Soft), tin-lead hot oil reflow
- all colours of solder mask: green, red, blue, black, white, grey and specific RAL on request.
Factories and Organizations of the PCB Division have been designed and implemented in order to be able to provide quick turnaround (QTA) service: this enables customers to get prototypes with short lead times so to improve their time-to-market and business performances.
All information related to products design coming from our customers are systematically verified in order to identify any risk factors through DFM, DFT and FMEA analysis.
Through our own mechanical and chemical LABs we can deliver all possible analysis results requested by PPAP Reports, CoC Reports or FAIR (First Article Inspection Reports) or by customized qualification processes for PCB conformity validation.
Our people, highly skilled in PCB design and manufacturing, are ready to support our partners at any time.
Our Dental EndMill (Milling Bur) محصولی مناسب برای مقرون به صرفه و کیفیت مناسب است.
ما بیش از یک سال است که در کره می فروشیم و خوب جواب می دهیم.
ارزانتر از مایع بکار رفته توسط شرکت تجهیزات است و طول تجهیزات بر روی آن تنظیم شده است که هر دستگاه می تواند راه اندازی شود.
لطفا در صورت هر گونه سؤال با ما تماس بگیرید.
Dec 3 2019
Date: December 3, 2019 12:00 AM